Various forms and sizes of stones may occur in any part of the urinary tract. They are most frequently found in the kidneys,
and may cause considerable pain as they attempt to pass down the muscular tube or ureter on their way to the bladder. Kidney
stones are three times as common in males as in females, and they also come on more frequently in middle life.
Kidney and bladder stones are formed from the usual chemicals found in the urine, such as uric acid, phosphate, calcium,
oxalic acid, and many more. Too little vitamin A or too much vitamin D because of over activity of the parathyroid glands
may also produce kidney stones.
The size and the appearance of the stones vary: may be much small sand like particles or big oval or branching calculi
nearly filling the renal pelvis. The oxalate stone is more common and is rough, hard and spiny may have a coating of altered
blood. The uric acid stone is brown, hard and on section has a laminated appearance. The phosphate stone is white, soft and
chalky and may sometimes be deposited on the urate or oxalate stone.
The stones may remain in the renal pelvis and increase in size. These exert pressure on the kidney, causing atrophy, also
erosion and perinephritic abscess. If the stone reaches the bladder, irritation and infection may follow, the urine may become
alkaline and the stone becomes bigger and encrusted with phosphates.
The symptoms depend upon the shape, size and position of the stones. A smooth small one may travel the whole passage without
symptoms. A stone fixed in one of the calyces without infection may remain latent for years. There may be either no symptoms
or only a dull ache in the loin, aggravated by the movements especially by jolting, of the same and rarely of the opposite
side; slight albuminuria, haemuturia and sometimes polyuria are present in some cases. But when a small stone passes down
to enter the ureter and is big enough to block it, more obvious indication is paroxysmal attacks of renal colic.
Colic is characterized by sudden severe pain often following muscular exercise especially riding, starts from the lumbar
region The patient is in intense agony during paroxysm, tosses in bed, bathed in cold sweat and he vomits frequently. This
continues for several minutes or hours and often disappears as suddenly: oxalate stones being harder and rougher, cause most
There is frequent desire for urination but the urine is scanty, high colored and even contains blood. Occasionally crystals
of stone are passed. If there is infection, fever and leucocytosis are also present. In case of complete block of the ureter,
if the other kidney is grossly diseased or its function reflexly inhibited, there may be anuria.
Later, the calculus reaching the bladder may cause vesicle irritability and pain at the root of the penis and perineum
In a favorable case, the stone may be passed out without further relapse of the colic but more often multiple stones are
present and attacks are repeated for several years.
Complications are pyelitis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, and extravasations of urine through ulcerated ureter, hydronephrosis,
anuria, progressive renal fibrosis, uremia and sometimes-malignant disease.
HOME REMEDIES: KIDNEY STONES
· Patients with kidney stones should avoid taking too much milk because of its high calcium content.
· Drink lots of water and other fluids.
· Limit the amount of calcium-rich foods—milk, cheese, butter, and other dairy foods.
· Avoid oxalate rich foods such as beans, beets, blueberries, celery, chocolate, grapes, green peppers, parsley, spinach,
strawberries, summer squash, and tea.
· Eat vitamin A rich foods. Vitamin A is necessary to keep the lining of the urinary tract in shape and help discourage
the formation of future stones. Foods high in vitamin A include apricots, broccoli, cantaloupes, pumpkins, winter squash,
and beef liver.
· Protein tends to increase the presence of uric acid, calcium, and phosphorus in the urine, which, in some people, leads
to the formation of stones. Limit the quantity of proteins in your diet.
· Reduce your consumption of table salt, pickled foods, and salty foods such as luncheon meat, snack chips, and processed
· Boil two figs in a cup of water. Drink this first thing in the morning for one month.
· Mix 1 tspn of Holy basil leaves juice with 1 tspn of honey. Have this every morning for 5-6 months.
· Eat 2-3 Apples a day.
· Eat watermelon, either as such or had a juice.
· Take 1 cup of juice made with radish leaves 2 times a day.
· Drink 1 glass of fresh tomato juice first thing in the morning. Add a pinch of salt and pepper to this.
· Take 3 long and thick lady fingers (slightly raw) Cut in thin long pieces and soak it in 2 litres of water overnight.
In the morning, remove the ladyfingers and squeeze the juice into the same jar of water. Drink the entire water over 1 –
· Celery is a valuable food for those who are prone to getting stones in the kidneys or gall bladder.
· The seeds of both sour and sweet pomegranates are useful medicine for kidney stones. Make a fine paste of a tablespoon
of the seeds, take this along with a cup of horse gram (kulthi) soup to dissolve gravel in kidneys.
· Watermelon contains the highest concentration of water amongst all fruits. It is also rich in potassium salts. Therefore
it is very good food for kidney stones patients.
· Eat a whole foods diet that contains leafy green vegetables, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and fish and
poultry in small portions.
· Mix 2 oz of olive oil and 2 oz of lemon juice, drink it straight down and follow with a large glass of water at the
first sign of stone pain.